1. 09:56 28th Feb 2014

    notes: 42793

    reblogged from: scifigeneration

    tags: biology

    image: download

    scifigeneration:

Maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions. Hot colors show activated, cool colors deactivated regions.
Credit: Lauri Nummenmaa, Enrico Glerean, Riitta Hari, and Jari Hietanen.
Source: People worldwide may feel mind-body connections in same way (Medical Xpress)
More info.: Bodily maps of emotions (PNAS)
via scienceisbeauty

Happiness = Human Torch, Anxiety = Iron Man, Depression = Doctor Manhattan, Shame = Spider-Man. 

    scifigeneration:

    Maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions. Hot colors show activated, cool colors deactivated regions.

    Credit: Lauri Nummenmaa, Enrico Glerean, Riitta Hari, and Jari Hietanen.

    Source: People worldwide may feel mind-body connections in same way (Medical Xpress)

    More info.: Bodily maps of emotions (PNAS)

    via scienceisbeauty

    Happiness = Human Torch, Anxiety = Iron Man, Depression = Doctor Manhattan, Shame = Spider-Man. 

     
  2. 09:06 20th Feb 2014

    notes: 227

    reblogged from: neurosciencestuff

    tags: biologybrain

    image: download

    neurosciencestuff:

The Hidden Costs of Cognitive Enhancement
Gentle electrical zaps to the brain can accelerate learning and boost performance on a wide range of mental tasks, scientists have reported in recent years. But a new study suggests there may be a hidden price: Gains in one aspect of cognition may come with deficits in another.

Follow the link for the complete article, very interesting. 

    neurosciencestuff:

    The Hidden Costs of Cognitive Enhancement

    Gentle electrical zaps to the brain can accelerate learning and boost performance on a wide range of mental tasks, scientists have reported in recent years. But a new study suggests there may be a hidden price: Gains in one aspect of cognition may come with deficits in another.

    Follow the link for the complete article, very interesting. 

     
  3. 08:55 6th Jan 2014

    notes: 90

    reblogged from: oupacademic

    tags: biologythanks for the fish

     
    • January 4: Britain’s first hand transplantation operation is successfully conducted.
    • January 9: A gamma secretase inhibitor previously experimented for treating Alzheimer’s disease is found to have regenerative effects on inner ear hair cells, potentially allowing for the effective treatment of deafness
    • January 10: Half of all food is wasted worldwide, according to a new report by the British Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IME)
    • January 23: Scientists encode large amounts of digital information, including the complete sonnets of William Shakespeare, on a single strand of synthetic DNA. DNA has immense potential as a storage medium, and may become commercially available for this purpose in the near future.
    • March 14: CERN scientists confirm, with a very high degree of certainty, that a new particle identified by the Large Hadron Collider in July 2012 is the long-sought Higgs boson
    • March 29: The Neanderthal genome is sequenced by German scientists from a toe bone found in southern Siberia.
    • May 22: Researchers at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, report that Earth is pushing the Moon away more quickly than it has done for most of the past 50 million years
    • July 16:NASA’s Curiosity rover reaches a milestone in its journey across Mars, having travelled 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) since its landing in 2012
    • November 17: Researchers have made the first battery electrode that heals itself, repairing imperfections within a few hours.

    and a lot more…

     
  4. image: download

    explore-blog:

This charming portrait of Charles Darwin and his fox terrier Polly by London-based illustrator Kerry Hyndman is the sweetest thing since this photo of Maurice Sendak and his German shepherd Herman. Pair with literary history’s notable pets and the authors who loved them.

On the Origin of Species was published on November 24 1859

    explore-blog:

    This charming portrait of Charles Darwin and his fox terrier Polly by London-based illustrator Kerry Hyndman is the sweetest thing since this photo of Maurice Sendak and his German shepherd Herman. Pair with literary history’s notable pets and the authors who loved them.

    On the Origin of Species was published on November 24 1859

     
  5. 09:31 18th Oct 2013

    notes: 12292

    reblogged from: an-animal-imagined-by-poe

    tags: biology

    jtotheizzoe:

    scientificvisuals:

    Microscopic life in a single drop of pond water. Peter Matulavich/Science Photo Library. Source here (definitely watch).

    A universe of wee beasties… although moving around is hard at that scale, thanks to the physics of fluid dynamics. Check out this TED-Ed video about sperm vs. sperm whales to find out why.

     
  6. 13:00 20th Sep 2013

    notes: 520

    reblogged from: thescienceofreality

    tags: biologybrain

    neuromorphogenesis:

    The Neural Magic of Hypnotic Suggestion

    A new review of the scientific literature studying hypnosis, in the journal Nature Reviews Neuroscience, by Oakley and Halligan, discusses the potential for hypnosis to provide insights into brain mechanisms involved in attention, motor control, pain perception, beliefs and volition and also to produce informative analogues of clinical conditions. This is a critical discussion as hypnosis is used as a psychological treatments and, recently, as an investigative tool in cognitive neuroscience.

    An iconic vision of the menacing magician involves placing a hapless person from the audience into a hypnotic trance. Svengali. You are getting sleeeepy. A scam, right? Not so fast. According to to this new review, as well as our colleagues who study the brains of people who are prone to trancelike states, hypnosis is not necessarily hocus-pocus. The age-old practice profoundly alters neural circuits involved in perception and decision making, changing what people see, hear, feel, and believe to be true. Recent experiments led people who were hypnotized to “see” colors where there were none. Others lost the ability to make simple decisions. Some people looked at common English words and thought they were gibberish.

    Some of the critical experiments were led by Amir Raz, a cognitive neuroscientist at McGill University in Montreal, who is an amateur magician. Raz wanted to do something really impressive that other neuroscientists could not ignore. So he hypnotized people and gave them the Stroop test. In this classic paradigm, you are shown words in block letters that are colored red, blue, green, or yellow. But here’s the rub. Sometimes the word “red” is colored green. Or the word “yellow” is shown in blue. You have to press a button stating the correct color. Reading is so deeply engrained in our brains that it will take you a little bit longer to override the automatic reading of a word like “red” and press a button that says “green.”

    Sixteen people, half of them highly hypnotizable and half of them resistant, came into Raz’s lab. (The purpose of the study, they were told, was to investigate the effects of suggestion on cognitive performance.) After each person underwent a hypnotic induction, Raz gave them these instructions:

    Very soon you will be playing a computer game inside a brain scanner. Every time you hear my voice over the intercom, you will immediately realize that meaningless symbols are going to appear in the middle of the screen. They will feel like characters in a foreign language that you do not know, and you will not attempt to attribute any meaning to them. This gibberish will be printed in one of four ink colors: red, blue, green, or yellow. Although you will only attend to color, you will see all the scrambled signs crisply. Your job is to quickly and accurately depress the key that corresponds to the color shown. You can play this game effortlessly. As soon as the scanning noise stops, you will relax back to your regular reading self.

    Raz then ended the hypnosis session, leaving each person with what is called a posthypnotic suggestion—an instruction to carry out an action while not hypnotized. Days later, they entered the brain scanner.

    In highly hypnotizables, when the instruction came over the intercom, the Stroop effect was obliterated, Raz said. They saw English words as gibberish and named colors instantly. But those who were resistant to hypnosis could not override the conflict, he said. The Stroop effect prevailed, rendering them significantly slower in naming the colors. When the brain scans of the two groups were compared, a distinct pattern appeared. In the hypnotizables, Raz found, the visual area of the brain that usually decodes written words did not become active. And a region in the front of the brain that usually detects conflict was similarly dampened. Top-down processes overrode circuits devoted to reading and detecting conflict. Most of the time people see what they expect to see and believe what they already believe—unless hypnosis trips up their brain circuitry. Most of the time, bottom-up information matches top-down expectation, but hypnosis creates a mismatch. You imagine something different, so it is different.

    The top-down nature of human cognition goes far to explain not only hypnosis but also the extraordinary powers of placebos (a sugar pill will make you feel better), nocebos (a witch doctor can make you ill), talk therapy, meditation, and magical stagecraft. We are not saying that hypnosis can cure your cancer, but these effects all demonstrate that suggestion can physically alter brain function.

     
  7. 10:54 19th Sep 2013

    notes: 359

    reblogged from: thescienceofreality

    tags: biology

    image: download

    nprglobalhealth:

Decades After Henrietta Lacks’ Death, Family Gets A Say On Her Cells
The family of the late Henrietta Lacks finally got the chance to weigh in on how scientists use cells taken from her — without consent — more than 60 years ago.
The National Institutes of Health and the Lacks family have agreed to give scientists access to the genetic sequence of the cells, with some restrictions to safeguard her relatives’ privacy. NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins described the agreement covering these so-called HeLa cellsWednesday, and how it came to be in the journal Nature.
The situation, he says, shines a bright light on a rising ethical issue in biomedicine: How do researchers protect people’s privacy when they donate samples for genomic sequencing and scientific experiments?
The guidelines governing this issue were drawn up in the 1970s. And they clearly lag behind the technology. The ability to decode a whole genome quickly and cheaply makes it virtually impossible to hide a donor’s identity when they give specimens for research.
"Science moves forward, advances happen in biology based upon resources that have been donated," Collins tells NPR. "Policy reforms have to be undertaken in order to keep up with the science."
The same was true back in 1951 when Henrietta Lacks unwittingly made available to scientists one of the most useful tools in research: cells that replicate and grew indefinitely in the lab. These cells are among the most widely used in biomedical research worldwide.
At age 31, the African-American mother of five had an unusually aggressive form of cervical cancer. The doctors treating her passed a piece of her tumor along to researchers down the hall, without permission from her or her family.
Continue reading.
Photo of Henrietta Lacks and her husband David courtesy of the Lacks family.

If you have never heard of Henrietta Lacks, you can also check wikipedia.  She was the unwitting source of cells cultured to create the first known human immortal cell line for medical research.

    nprglobalhealth:

    Decades After Henrietta Lacks’ Death, Family Gets A Say On Her Cells

    The family of the late Henrietta Lacks finally got the chance to weigh in on how scientists use cells taken from her — without consent — more than 60 years ago.

    The National Institutes of Health and the Lacks family have agreed to give scientists access to the genetic sequence of the cells, with some restrictions to safeguard her relatives’ privacy. NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins described the agreement covering these so-called HeLa cellsWednesday, and how it came to be in the journal Nature.

    The situation, he says, shines a bright light on a rising ethical issue in biomedicine: How do researchers protect people’s privacy when they donate samples for genomic sequencing and scientific experiments?

    The guidelines governing this issue were drawn up in the 1970s. And they clearly lag behind the technology. The ability to decode a whole genome quickly and cheaply makes it virtually impossible to hide a donor’s identity when they give specimens for research.

    "Science moves forward, advances happen in biology based upon resources that have been donated," Collins tells NPR. "Policy reforms have to be undertaken in order to keep up with the science."

    The same was true back in 1951 when Henrietta Lacks unwittingly made available to scientists one of the most useful tools in research: cells that replicate and grew indefinitely in the lab. These cells are among the most widely used in biomedical research worldwide.

    At age 31, the African-American mother of five had an unusually aggressive form of cervical cancer. The doctors treating her passed a piece of her tumor along to researchers down the hall, without permission from her or her family.

    Continue reading.

    Photo of Henrietta Lacks and her husband David courtesy of the Lacks family.

    If you have never heard of Henrietta Lacks, you can also check wikipedia.  She was the unwitting source of cells cultured to create the first known human immortal cell line for medical research.

     
  8. image: download

    How to create an artificial burger.
And what does it taste like ? :  
First lab-grown hamburger gets full marks for ‘mouth feel’,
"I was expecting the texture to be more soft," said Hanni Rützler of the Future Food Studio, who researches food trends and was the first to get a taste of the synthetic beef hamburger at a lavish event in London on Monday [August 5 2013]  that bore more resemblance to a TV set than a scientific press conference.
The lack of fat was noticeable, she added, which meant a lack of juiciness in the centre of the burger. If she had closed her eyes, however, she would have thought the cultured beef was definitely meat rather than a vegetable-based substitute. […]
The €250,000 cost of making the burger was paid by Google co-founder Sergey Brin, who said he got into the idea for animal welfare reasons.”

    How to create an artificial burger.

    And what does it taste like ? :  

    First lab-grown hamburger gets full marks for ‘mouth feel’,

    "I was expecting the texture to be more soft," said Hanni Rützler of the Future Food Studio, who researches food trends and was the first to get a taste of the synthetic beef hamburger at a lavish event in London on Monday [August 5 2013]  that bore more resemblance to a TV set than a scientific press conference.

    The lack of fat was noticeable, she added, which meant a lack of juiciness in the centre of the burger. If she had closed her eyes, however, she would have thought the cultured beef was definitely meat rather than a vegetable-based substitute. […]

    The €250,000 cost of making the burger was paid by Google co-founder Sergey Brin, who said he got into the idea for animal welfare reasons.”

     
  9. 09:20 25th Jul 2013

    notes: 543

    reblogged from: scienceyoucanlove

    tags: scientistbiology

    scienceyoucanlove:

    Happy Birthday to one of my fav scientists!!

    Rosalind Franklin 
    1920 - 1958

    Rosalind Franklin always liked facts. She was logical and precise, and impatient with things that were otherwise. She decided to become a scientist when she was 15. She passed the examination for admission to Cambridge University in 1938, and it sparked a family crisis. Although her family was well-to-do and had a tradition of public service and philanthropy, her father disapproved of university education for women. He refused to pay. An aunt stepped in and said Franklin should go to school, and she would pay for it. Franklin’s mother also took her side until her father finally gave in.

    War broke out in Europe in 1939 and Franklin stayed at Cambridge. She graduated in 1941 and started work on her doctorate. Her work focused on a wartime problem: the nature of coal and charcoal and how to use them most efficiently. She published five papers on the subject before she was 26 years old. Her work is still quoted today, and helped launch the field of high-strength carbon fibers. At 26, Franklin had her PhD and the war was just over. She began working in x-ray diffraction — using x-rays to create images of crystalized solids. She pioneered the use of this method in analyzing complex, unorganized matter such as large biological molecules, and not just single crystals.

    She spent three years in France, enjoying the work atmosphere, the freedoms of peacetime, the French food and culture. But in 1950, she realized that if she wanted to make a scientific career in England, she had to go back. She was invited to King’s College in London to join a team of scientists studying living cells. The leader of the team assigned her to work on DNA with a graduate student. Franklin’s assumption was that it was her own project. The laboratory’s second-in-command, Maurice Wilkins, was on vacation at the time, and when he returned, their relationship was muddled. He assumed she was to assist his work; she assumed she’d be the only one working on DNA. They had powerful personality differences as well: Franklin direct, quick, decisive, and Wilkins shy, speculative, and passive. This would play a role in the coming years as the race unfolded to find the structure of DNA.

    Franklin made marked advances in x-ray diffraction techniques with DNA. She adjusted her equipment to produce an extremely fine beam of x-rays. She extracted finer DNA fibers than ever before and arranged them in parallel bundles. And she studied the fibers’ reactions to humid conditions. All of these allowed her to discover crucial keys to DNA’s structure. Wilkins shared her data, without her knowledge, with James Watson and Francis Crick, at Cambridge University, and they pulled ahead in the race, ultimately publishing the proposed structure of DNA in March, 1953.

    The strained relationship with Wilkins and other aspects of King’s College (the women scientists were not allowed to eat lunch in the common room where the men did, for example) led Franklin to seek another position. She headed her own research group at Birkbeck College in London. But the head of King’s let her go on the condition she would not work on DNA. Franklin returned to her studies of coal and also wrapped up her DNA work. She turned her attention to viruses, publishing 17 papers in five years. Her group’s findings laid the foundation for structural virology.

    While on a professional visit to the United States, Franklin had episodes of pain that she soon learned were ovarian cancer. She continued working over the next two years, through three operations and experimental chemotherapy and a 10-month remission. She worked up until a few weeks before her death in 1958 at age 37.

    source

    photo 2 source