1. image: download

    mothernaturenetwork:

Black holes cannot actually exist, according to mathematical proofThe scientific world is left reeling after a researcher offers breakthrough mathematical proof.

“According to her calculations, when a star collapses under its own gravity, it produces the Hawking radiation that scientists have observed. But, she argues, as the star gives off this radiation it also sheds mass. So much mass is shed, in fact, that the star loses density, and the formation of a black hole is prevented. Stars do not meet their death by collapsing into black holes, according to the proof. Rather, they swell one last time and then explode.”  
I recommend this other article (a little less sensationalist), written by an astrophycisist, about the Laura Mersini-Houghton paper : 
"This is interesting theoretical work, and it raises questions about the formation of stellar-mass black holes. But it doesn’t prove that stellar-mass black holes don’t exist, nor does it say anything about intermediate mass or supermassive black holes, which would form by processes other than stellar collapse. And of course the work depends upon Hawking’s take on firewalls to be correct, which hasn’t been proven. To say that this work proves black holes don’t exist is disingenuous at best" .

    mothernaturenetwork:

    Black holes cannot actually exist, according to mathematical proof
    The scientific world is left reeling after a researcher offers breakthrough mathematical proof.

    According to her calculations, when a star collapses under its own gravity, it produces the Hawking radiation that scientists have observed. But, she argues, as the star gives off this radiation it also sheds mass. So much mass is shed, in fact, that the star loses density, and the formation of a black hole is prevented. Stars do not meet their death by collapsing into black holes, according to the proof. Rather, they swell one last time and then explode.”  

    I recommend this other article (a little less sensationalist), written by an astrophycisist, about the Laura Mersini-Houghton paper : 

    "This is interesting theoretical work, and it raises questions about the formation of stellar-mass black holes. But it doesn’t prove that stellar-mass black holes don’t exist, nor does it say anything about intermediate mass or supermassive black holes, which would form by processes other than stellar collapse. And of course the work depends upon Hawking’s take on firewalls to be correct, which hasn’t been proven. To say that this work proves black holes don’t exist is disingenuous at best" .

     
  2. 11:58 27th Sep 2014

    notes: 749

    reblogged from: distant-traveller

    tags: astronomyblack hole

    image: download

    distant-traveller:

Big surprises can come in small packages

Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have found a monster lurking in a very unlikely place. New observations of the ultracompact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 have revealed a supermassive black hole at its heart, making this tiny galaxy the smallest ever found to host a supermassive black hole. This suggests that there may be many more supermassive black holes that we have missed, and tells us more about the formation of these incredibly dense galaxies.




Lying about 50 million light-years away, M60-UCD1 is a tiny galaxy with a diameter of 300 light-years — just 1/500th of the diameter of the Milky Way. Despite its size it is pretty crowded, containing some 140 million stars. While this is characteristic of an ultracompact dwarf galaxy (UCD) like M60-UCD1, this particular UCD happens to be the densest ever seen.
Despite their huge numbers of stars, UCDs always seem to be heavier than they should be. Now, an international team of astronomers has made a new discovery that may explain why — at the heart of M60-UCD1 lurks a supermassive black hole with the mass of 20 million Suns.
"We’ve known for some time that many UCDs are a bit overweight. They just appear to be too heavy for the luminosity of their stars," says co-author Steffen Mieske of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. "We had already published a study that suggested this additional weight could come from the presence of supermassive black holes, but it was only a theory. Now, by studying the movement of the stars within M60-UCD1, we have detected the effects of such a black hole at its centre. This is a very exciting result and we want to know how many more UCDs may harbour such extremely massive objects."
The supermassive black hole at the centre of M60-UCD1 makes up a huge 15 percent of the galaxy’s total mass, and weighs five times that of the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. "That is pretty amazing, given that the Milky Way is 500 times larger and more than 1000 times heavier than M60-UCD1," explains Anil Seth of the University of Utah, USA, lead author of the international study. "In fact, even though the black hole at the centre of our Milky Way galaxy has the mass of 4 million Suns it is still less than 0.01 percent of the Milky Way’s total mass, which makes you realise how significant M60-UCD1’s black hole really is."
The team discovered the supermassive black hole by observing M60-UCD1 with both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and the Gemini North 8-metre optical and infrared telescope on Hawaii’s Mauna Kea, USA. The sharp Hubble images provided information about the galaxy’s diameter and stellar density, whilst Gemini was used to measure the movement of stars in the galaxy as they were affected by the black hole’s gravitational pull. These data were then used to calculate the mass of the unseen black hole.
The finding implies that there may be a substantial population of previously unnoticed black holes. In fact, the astronomers predict there may be as many as double the known number of black holes in the local Universe.
Additionally, the results could affect theories of how such UCDs form. One explanation is that M60-UCD1 was once a large galaxy containing 10 billion stars, and a supermassive black hole to match. "This galaxy may have passed too close to the centre of its much larger neighbouring galaxy, Messier 60," explains co author Remco van den Bosch of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. "In that process the outer part of the galaxy would have been torn away to become part of Messier 60, leaving behind only the small and compact galaxy we see today."
The team believes that M60-UDC1 may one day merge with Messier 60 to form a single galaxy. Messier 60 also has its own monster black hole an amazing 4.5 billion times the size of our Sun and more than 1000 times bigger than the black hole in our Milky Way. A merger between the two galaxies would also cause the black holes to merge, creating an even more monstrous black hole.

Image credit: NASA, ESA, D. Coe, G. Bacon (STScI)

    distant-traveller:

    Big surprises can come in small packages

    Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have found a monster lurking in a very unlikely place. New observations of the ultracompact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 have revealed a supermassive black hole at its heart, making this tiny galaxy the smallest ever found to host a supermassive black hole. This suggests that there may be many more supermassive black holes that we have missed, and tells us more about the formation of these incredibly dense galaxies.

    Lying about 50 million light-years away, M60-UCD1 is a tiny galaxy with a diameter of 300 light-years — just 1/500th of the diameter of the Milky Way. Despite its size it is pretty crowded, containing some 140 million stars. While this is characteristic of an ultracompact dwarf galaxy (UCD) like M60-UCD1, this particular UCD happens to be the densest ever seen.

    Despite their huge numbers of stars, UCDs always seem to be heavier than they should be. Now, an international team of astronomers has made a new discovery that may explain why — at the heart of M60-UCD1 lurks a supermassive black hole with the mass of 20 million Suns.

    "We’ve known for some time that many UCDs are a bit overweight. They just appear to be too heavy for the luminosity of their stars," says co-author Steffen Mieske of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. "We had already published a study that suggested this additional weight could come from the presence of supermassive black holes, but it was only a theory. Now, by studying the movement of the stars within M60-UCD1, we have detected the effects of such a black hole at its centre. This is a very exciting result and we want to know how many more UCDs may harbour such extremely massive objects."

    The supermassive black hole at the centre of M60-UCD1 makes up a huge 15 percent of the galaxy’s total mass, and weighs five times that of the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. "That is pretty amazing, given that the Milky Way is 500 times larger and more than 1000 times heavier than M60-UCD1," explains Anil Seth of the University of Utah, USA, lead author of the international study. "In fact, even though the black hole at the centre of our Milky Way galaxy has the mass of 4 million Suns it is still less than 0.01 percent of the Milky Way’s total mass, which makes you realise how significant M60-UCD1’s black hole really is."

    The team discovered the supermassive black hole by observing M60-UCD1 with both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and the Gemini North 8-metre optical and infrared telescope on Hawaii’s Mauna Kea, USA. The sharp Hubble images provided information about the galaxy’s diameter and stellar density, whilst Gemini was used to measure the movement of stars in the galaxy as they were affected by the black hole’s gravitational pull. These data were then used to calculate the mass of the unseen black hole.

    The finding implies that there may be a substantial population of previously unnoticed black holes. In fact, the astronomers predict there may be as many as double the known number of black holes in the local Universe.

    Additionally, the results could affect theories of how such UCDs form. One explanation is that M60-UCD1 was once a large galaxy containing 10 billion stars, and a supermassive black hole to match. "This galaxy may have passed too close to the centre of its much larger neighbouring galaxy, Messier 60," explains co author Remco van den Bosch of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. "In that process the outer part of the galaxy would have been torn away to become part of Messier 60, leaving behind only the small and compact galaxy we see today."

    The team believes that M60-UDC1 may one day merge with Messier 60 to form a single galaxy. Messier 60 also has its own monster black hole an amazing 4.5 billion times the size of our Sun and more than 1000 times bigger than the black hole in our Milky Way. A merger between the two galaxies would also cause the black holes to merge, creating an even more monstrous black hole.

    Image credit: NASA, ESA, D. Coe, G. Bacon (STScI)

     
  3. 14:00 21st Sep 2014

    notes: 207

    reblogged from: theliquid-summer

    tags: astronomy2013

    theliquid-summer:

    Gallifrey falls no more. Seriously, can we starts a petition to call this planet Gallifrey?

     
  4. 09:49 9th Sep 2014

    notes: 816

    reblogged from: heythereuniverse

    tags: astronomyblack hole

    image: download

    heythereuniverse:

A Ring of Black Holes | NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center

Composite image of Arp 147, a pair of interacting galaxies located about 430 million light years from Earth. Arp 147 contains the remnant of a spiral galaxy (right) that collided with the elliptical galaxy on the left. This collision has produced an expanding wave of star formation that shows up as a blue ring containing in abundance of massive young stars. These stars race through their evolution in a few million years or less and explode as supernovas, leaving behind neutron stars and black holes. (more)

    heythereuniverse:

    A Ring of Black Holes | NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center

    Composite image of Arp 147, a pair of interacting galaxies located about 430 million light years from Earth. Arp 147 contains the remnant of a spiral galaxy (right) that collided with the elliptical galaxy on the left. This collision has produced an expanding wave of star formation that shows up as a blue ring containing in abundance of massive young stars. These stars race through their evolution in a few million years or less and explode as supernovas, leaving behind neutron stars and black holes. (more)

     
  5. 10:46 3rd Sep 2014

    notes: 97

    reblogged from: m1k3y

    tags: astronomystar

    warrenellis:

    "An ancient star a mere thousand light-years from Earth bears chemical elements that may have been forged by the death of a star that was both extremely massive and one of the first to arise after the big bang. If confirmed, the finding means that some of the universe’s first stars were so massive they died in exceptionally violent explosions that altered the growth of early galaxies."

     
  6. 09:18 1st Sep 2014

    notes: 55063

    reblogged from: rosemaryandthorn

    tags: astronomystar

    estufar:

actual headline from The New York Times in 1919

    estufar:

    actual headline from The New York Times in 1919

     
  7. 11:36 30th Aug 2014

    notes: 85

    reblogged from: m1k3y

    tags: astronomyextrasolar meteorology

    m1k3y:

    "It’s tentative," he says, but "it’s the first evidence for water clouds" outside our solar system. Even within the solar system, observers can see water clouds on only Earth and Mars; the giant planets are so cold that ammonia ice clouds cover the water clouds on Jupiter and Saturn while the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune block the view there.

    Observers have previously discerned water vapor in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets, but Fortney says water clouds are a new phenomenon. “One of the things we don’t really know is how common partly cloudiness is,” he says. Venus, whose clouds consist of sulfuric acid, is totally cloudy, whereas Earth is partly cloudy. Faherty says the brown dwarf is also partly cloudy: About half is obscured by clouds.

    Verifying the discovery will require spectra. Because the object is so dim, this will likely await the James Webb Space Telescope, which will be launched later this decade.

     
  8. 09:06 28th Aug 2014

    notes: 182

    reblogged from: rosemaryandthorn

    tags: astronomyNeptuneTriton

    image: download

    minus229k1:

Meet Triton, Neptune’s innermost and weirdest moon.Paul Schenk lately completed the best map so far of the moon, with the help of NASA’s Voyager 2,which passed by the last “real” planet in 1989, the map was actualized and now gives the best view of Triton we’ve ever had.
Read more about the project here:
http://spaceref.com/neptune/voyager-map-details-neptunes-strange-moon-triton.html
Found at #Planetary Landscapes’ FB.

    minus229k1:

    Meet Triton, Neptune’s innermost and weirdest moon.
    Paul Schenk lately completed the best map so far of the moon, with the help of NASA’s Voyager 2,which passed by the last “real” planet in 1989, the map was actualized and now gives the best view of Triton we’ve ever had.

    Read more about the project here:

    http://spaceref.com/neptune/voyager-map-details-neptunes-strange-moon-triton.html

    Found at #Planetary Landscapes’ FB.

     
  9. A Spacecraft for All: 

    • Launched in 1978 and originally tasked with studying the outer reaches of the Earth’s magnetosphere, the International Sun/Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE-3) probe was given a second mission in the 1980s of chasing comets before being shut down in 1997.
    • It was determined to be possible to reactivate the spacecraft in 2014, when it again made a close approach to Earth, and scientists discussed reusing the probe to observe more comets. However, NASA was no longer interested in recovering the spacecraft because of the limitations of its present budgets.
    •  A group of space enthusiasts began to talk. Retired and active aerospace engineers began to exchange ideas with avid HAM radio operators around the world.  Finally, one group took charge. They made a agreement with NASA to have the rights to use ISEE-3 for the benefit of citizen science and obtained the old documentation.  
    • In May 2014, the ISEE-3 Reboot Project raised more than $150,000 with crowdfunding. Some original NASA engineers and various experts offered their help. The group gathered old equipment in their headquarters, an abandoned McDonald’s (they call it McMoons). After a lot of work and trial and error, two-way communication was achieved and ISEE-3 truly became ISEE-3 Reboot. 
    • The ultimate goal was to command the spacecraft to fire its rocket engines to change its trajectory and become captured by the Earth’s gravitational field.  On July 2, the reboot project fired the thrusters for the first time since 1987. They spun up the spacecraft to its nominal roll rate, in preparation for the upcoming trajectory correction maneuver in mid-July. On July 8, a longer sequence of thrusters firings failed, apparently due to a loss of the nitrogen gas used to pressurize the fuel tanks
    • On July 24, the ISEE-3 Reboot Team announced that all attempts to change orbit using the ISEE-3 propulsion system had failed. Instead, the team said, the ISEE-3 Interplanetary Citizen Science Mission would gather data as the spacecraft flies by the Moon on August 10 and enters a heliocentric orbit similar to Earth’s. 
    • Google Creative Labs documented the adventure and created the compendium which was delivered to the public domain last week, A Spacecraft for All

    I tried to summarize the main events of this great technical adventure. The details are interesting. I invite you to visit the google site and to read more: 

    my sources: gizmag (good article) and wikipedia

    The ISEE-3 Reboot blog: spacecollege.org/isee3/

     

     
  10. 13:18 10th Aug 2014

    notes: 452

    reblogged from: equinoxparanormal

    tags: astronomymoonmeteor

    image: download

    equinoxparanormal:

Supermoon On August 10 Will Be Biggest Of 2014
There’s going to be an extra-special moon this weekend.
On Aug. 10, when the moon turns full at 2:10 p.m. EDT, skywatchers will be treated to the sight of a so-called “supermoon” — and it will be the largest supermoon of the year.
The phenomenon — any full moon that coincides with the time in the moon’s orbitwhen it’s closest to Earth — should be visible on Sunday night after sunset.
Head over to the U.S. Naval Observatory’s website to check local times for the supermoon in your area.
How spectacular will this supermoon be?
In comparison to other full moons, supermoons can be up to 14 percent closer and 30 percent brighter, according to NASA. In addition, the August 2014 supermoon will become full during the same hour that the moon comes closest to the Earth (lunar perigee), meaning it will outshine other full moons that have fallen on the same day as the lunar perigee.
The August supermoon may also pair nicely with the Perseid meteor shower, which should be visible this weekend when Earth passes through the debris zone left byComet Swift–Tuttle. The Perseids, which may offer skywatchers a view of 100 shooting stars per hour, will peak between Aug. 10 and Aug. 13.
This year was an exceptional one for supermoons, with three appearing in a row —one each in July, August and September. The next supermoon will fall on September 9, 2014.
[Sara Gates, The Huffington Post]

    equinoxparanormal:

    Supermoon On August 10 Will Be Biggest Of 2014

    There’s going to be an extra-special moon this weekend.

    On Aug. 10, when the moon turns full at 2:10 p.m. EDT, skywatchers will be treated to the sight of a so-called “supermoon” — and it will be the largest supermoon of the year.

    The phenomenon — any full moon that coincides with the time in the moon’s orbitwhen it’s closest to Earth — should be visible on Sunday night after sunset.

    Head over to the U.S. Naval Observatory’s website to check local times for the supermoon in your area.

    How spectacular will this supermoon be?

    In comparison to other full moons, supermoons can be up to 14 percent closer and 30 percent brighter, according to NASA. In addition, the August 2014 supermoon will become full during the same hour that the moon comes closest to the Earth (lunar perigee), meaning it will outshine other full moons that have fallen on the same day as the lunar perigee.

    The August supermoon may also pair nicely with the Perseid meteor shower, which should be visible this weekend when Earth passes through the debris zone left byComet Swift–Tuttle. The Perseids, which may offer skywatchers a view of 100 shooting stars per hour, will peak between Aug. 10 and Aug. 13.

    This year was an exceptional one for supermoons, with three appearing in a row —one each in July, August and September. The next supermoon will fall on September 9, 2014.

    [Sara Gates, The Huffington Post]